After you have a profile data file `gmon.out', you can run
to interpret the information in it. The
gprof program prints a
flat profile and a call graph on standard output. Typically you would
redirect the output of
gprof into a file with `>'.
gprof like this:
gprof options [executable-file [profile-data-files...]] [> outfile]
Here square-brackets indicate optional arguments.
If you omit the executable file name, the file `a.out' is used. If you give no profile data file name, the file `gmon.out' is used. If any file is not in the proper format, or if the profile data file does not appear to belong to the executable file, an error message is printed.
You can give more than one profile data file by entering all their names after the executable file name; then the statistics in all the data files are summed together.
The order of these options does not matter.
These options specify which of several output formats
gprof should produce.
Many of these options take an optional symspec to specify functions to be included or excluded. These options can be specified multiple times, with different symspecs, to include or exclude sets of symbols. See section Symspecs.
Specifying any of these options overrides the default (`-p -q'), which prints a flat profile and call graph analysis for all functions.
gprofto print annotated source code. If symspec is specified, print output only for matching symbols. See section The Annotated Source Listing.
gprofdoesn't print the verbose blurbs that try to explain the meaning of all of the fields in the tables. This is useful if you intend to print out the output, or are tired of seeing the blurbs.
gprofto print a tally of functions and the number of times each was called. If symspec is specified, print tally only for matching symbols. If the profile data file contains basic-block count records, specifing the `-l' option, along with `-C', will cause basic-block execution counts to be tallied and displayed.
gprofto display summary information about the profile data file(s) and then exit. The number of histogram, call graph, and basic-block count records is displayed.
gprofnot to print annotated source code. If symspec is specified,
gprofprints annotated source, but excludes matching symbols.
gprofto print the full pathname of source filenames, which is determined from symbolic debugging information in the image file and is relative to the directory in which the compiler was invoked.
gprofto print a flat profile. If symspec is specified, print flat profile only for matching symbols. See section The Flat Profile.
gprofto suppress printing a flat profile. If symspec is specified,
gprofprints a flat profile, but excludes matching symbols.
gprofto print the call graph analysis. If symspec is specified, print call graph only for matching symbols and their children. See section The Call Graph.
gprofto suppress printing the call graph. If symspec is specified,
gprofprints a call graph, but excludes matching symbols.
gprofnot to print a tally of functions and the number of times each was called. If symspec is specified, print tally, but exclude matching symbols.
gprofto print a suggested function ordering for the program based on profiling data. This option suggests an ordering which may improve paging, tlb and cache behavior for the program on systems which support arbitrary ordering of functions in an executable. The exact details of how to force the linker to place functions in a particular order is system dependent and out of the scope of this manual.
gprofto print a suggested .o link line ordering for the program based on profiling data. This option suggests an ordering which may improve paging, tlb and cache behavior for the program on systems which do not support arbitrary ordering of functions in an executable. Use of the `-a' argument is highly recommended with this option. The map_file argument is a pathname to a file which provides function name to object file mappings. The format of the file is similar to the output of the program
c-parse.o:00000000 T yyparse c-parse.o:00000004 C yyerrflag c-lang.o:00000000 T maybe_objc_method_name c-lang.o:00000000 T print_lang_statistics c-lang.o:00000000 T recognize_objc_keyword c-decl.o:00000000 T print_lang_identifier c-decl.o:00000000 T print_lang_type ...GNU
nm`--extern-only' `--defined-only' `-v' `--print-file-name' can be used to create map_file.
gprofto print its output in "traditional" BSD style.
--no-demangleoption may be used to turn off demangling.
gprofto suppress the printing of statically declared (private) functions. (These are functions whose names are not listed as global, and which are not visible outside the file/function/block where they were defined.) Time spent in these functions, calls to/from them, etc, will all be attributed to the function that was loaded directly before it in the executable file. This option affects both the flat profile and the call graph.
gprofto ignore symbols which are not known to be functions. This option will give more accurate profile data on systems where it is supported (Solaris and HPUX for example).
gprof, and magnifies statistical inaccuracies. See section Statistical Sampling Error.
gprof, in its call graph analysis, to only propagate times for symbols matching symspec.
gprof, in its call graph analysis, not to propagate times for symbols matching symspec.
gprofwill mention all functions in the flat profile, even those that were never called, and that had no time spent in them. This is useful in conjunction with the `-c' option for discovering which routines were never called.
gprofto summarize the information in the profile data files it read in, and write out a profile data file called `gmon.sum', which contains all the information from the profile data files that
gprofread in. The file `gmon.sum' may be one of the specified input files; the effect of this is to merge the data in the other input files into `gmon.sum'. Eventually you can run
gprofagain without `-s' to analyze the cumulative data in the file `gmon.sum'.
gprofto print the current version number, and then exit.
gprofto not print information about the function function_name (and its children...) in the call graph. The function will still be listed as a child of any functions that call it, but its index number will be shown as `[not printed]'. More than one `-e' option may be given; only one function_name may be indicated with each `-e' option.
-E functionoption works like the
-eoption, but time spent in the function (and children who were not called from anywhere else), will not be used to compute the percentages-of-time for the call graph. More than one `-E' option may be given; only one function_name may be indicated with each `-E' option.
gprofto limit the call graph to the function function_name and its children (and their children...). More than one `-f' option may be given; only one function_name may be indicated with each `-f' option.
-foption, but only time spent in the function and its children (and their children...) will be used to determine total-time and percentages-of-time for the call graph. More than one `-F' option may be given; only one function_name may be indicated with each `-F' option. The `-F' option overrides the `-E' option.
Note that only one function can be specified with each
-F option. To specify more than one
function, use multiple options. For example, this command:
gprof -e boring -f foo -f bar myprogram > gprof.output
lists in the call graph all functions that were reached from either
bar and were not reachable from
Many of the output options allow functions to be included or excluded using symspecs (symbol specifications), which observe the following syntax:
filename_containing_a_dot | funcname_not_containing_a_dot | linenumber | ( [ any_filename ] `:' ( any_funcname | linenumber ) )
Here are some sample symspecs:
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